Landscape Urbanism & New Urbanism: it shouldn’t be so divisive

Summary
Despite the efforts of each party to highlight its differences, there is a significant overlap between Landscape Urbanism and New Urbanism, both positive and negative. Positive: a concern about urban harmony. Negative: a tendency to fragment (call it sprawl).
Urbanists of both colours would do better to recognise this common ground and realise that fragmented urbanism risks the social, economic and environmental health of cities.

Some thoughts
The current Metropolis magazine exchange between Andres Duany and Alex Krieger, on the respective merits of New Urbanism and Landscape Urbanism, has brought a simmering debate to the boil. This week’s 50th Anniversary celebration of Urban Design at Harvard’s Graduate School of Design (GSD) looks set to be an intriguing engagement. Duany, a pioneer of New Urbanism, will be speaking alongside (among?) the pioneers of Landscape Urbanism. How will Daniel deal with the lions’ den?

Charles Waldheim, Chair of Landscape Architecture at the GSD, gave a revealing and stimulating presentation on Landscape Urbanism recently to Christian Werthmann’s class there on “Sustainability for Planning and Design”. The foundational concept of Landscape Urbanism – that a balance needs to be found between human and non-human habitats, between the green of the landscape and the grey of the city – is undoubtedly correct. The sterility of most contemporary urban environments is evidence of ignorance or antipathy among planners and designers towards the biodiverse landscape. The consequential impact of insensitive, resource-depleting and damaging development on watersheds, soils, flora and fauna is ultimately costly for the human economy. Water is, especially, a resource that can and does provoke hostility and conflict.

Landscape Urbanism proposes that a new attitude is taken towards first, the preservation of natural habitats and second, the introduction of these into the barren settings of our towns and cities. This is a difficult proposition to argue against in principle. However, in practice it is apparent that the means by which the ecological enhancement of cities takes place – the manner in which urban places are “greened” – is, above all, a design problem. And here’s the rub. Continue reading Landscape Urbanism & New Urbanism: it shouldn’t be so divisive

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Istanbul/Shoreditch crits

Istanbul

Richard Peiser
John Portman
Alex
David
TS

TS site analysis
Site is at the intersection of a major radial and a major orbital route.
V strong road connections.
Potentially local drive/walk connections.
Key will be to exploit both. But local connections cost.

Nature of road to the north. Being treated as a negative.

Nature of route network. Precedents from elsewhere in Istanbul and beyond – all part of continuous spatial networks with overlapping and intersecting patterns of multi-scale movement. This site does not allow this unless connections are made.

Carolina
3rd St Mall, Santa Monica

Ignacio
“Buffer”
DNA of the site

Contours…
Contours look steep.
How does route network map onto contours?

Plan B is cranked.

Need to see sections/true 3D.

Parking?

Macy
Desire to integrate site with surrounding neighbourhoods.
Connections diagram would be more convincing if we could see what the new connections are connecting to.
Separating different modes of movement – why?

Shoreditch

Land use plan – need fine-grained analysis

Land value – key is reln between City to south and Shoreditch to north. Broadgate was not in City and land value was low but development transformed this. Produce a large-scale plan to show this.

Conservation areas?

St Paul’s/other protected views?

Be careful about retail on interior of blocks – look at Broadgate latest phase. Where does ew route go? A retail anchor is not enough.

Likewise, inner block route running parallel to Shoreditch High Street.

Why 5*hotel an anchor?

Major bus routes and vehicular routes are also major pedestrian routes.

Order of phasing – why that order?

Christine, Andrea & Eric
Sophisticated analysis and design proposals.
Major open space – is it too big?

Go looking for the thing you can’t see

Architecture is obsessed with what things look like. Hence the focus on form and style; on the materials that buildings are made from; on the processes by which these materials are brought together. In school, in practice and in the media.

But this isn’t everything and it isn’t enough. Architecture is much more important. It is not only a physical and visual discipline but a social, economic and environmental one too.

Architecture creates social networks by influencing how people use the places they are given. It channels the flow of money down streets and corridors and it provides the locations in which this money changes hands. It influences the flow of energy from the micro scale of the lightbulb to the macro regional scale of the transport system.

As Rahul Mehrotra says, “The spectacle of the city is not the buildings but the activity that takes place between them”. He calls this the “Kinetic City”. Continue reading Go looking for the thing you can’t see

Good ideas come from crowds & liquid networks

An article on the BBC Business website neatly summarises Steven Johnson’s research findings on the origins of innovations:

“Go for a walk; cultivate hunches; write everything down; but keep your folders messy; embrace serendipity; make generative mistakes; take on multiple hobbies, frequent coffee houses and other liquid networks; follow the links; let others build on your ideas; borrow, recycle, reinvent.”

“[Good ideas] come from crowds, they come from networks. You know we have this clichéd idea of the lone genius having the eureka moment.”

Spatial Justice in Urban India

Notes from a talk by Leo Saldanha and Bharghavi Rao on “Contested Terrains: Environmental and Spatial Justice in Urban India” at Harvard University Graduate School of Design, organised by HUPO, the Harvard Urban Planning Organisation.

Themes
A right to life includes a right to livelihood.

This challenged by:
– privatisation
– gating
– surveillance
– separation and marginalisation
– cleansing of the urban poor
– harassment of sexual minorities
– encroachment of the car.

This creates a fragmentation of communities. The problems are well understood by elected representatives – the problem is in municipal bureaucracies.

The future needs to be the “cheap city”. The small/medium-sized city is the future. Continue reading Spatial Justice in Urban India